DBA Resource Page

Variant Armies

DBM to DBA Armies
(Vol. 1, Book IV, -- Armies After 999 AD)

By Bernd Lehnhoff
Translated by Mike Stelzer

The following is an English translation of the DBM to DBA army conversions done by Bernd Lehnhoff using the first edition DBM army lists. Elements marked "*" are historically appropriate for placement of the General. The Hordes troop type is indicated for those who use the Horde variant rule, otherwise convert to Spear or Auxilia as indicated. Note that Hordes conversions marked Ax6 and Sp8 are represented by Lehnhoff as double based elements that receive no support and cannot be supported by other units. They only count as one unit for play and victory purposes.

[ Book 1 ] [ Book 2 ] [ Book 3 ] [ Book 4 ]


  1. West African States (Sudan) (1000-1591): 1 Kn3*, 2 Cv3 or LH2, 6 Bw3, 1 Ps2, 2 Sp4 or [1 Ax3, 1 Bd3 or EXP].

  2. Tuareg (1000-1880): 6 Cm3*, 1 Cm3 or LH2 (camel mounted), 5 Cm3 or [4 Wb3, 1 Ps2].

  3. Early Jurchen (1000-1114): 8 Cv3*, 3 Cv3 or [1 Kn3, 1 Cv3, 1 LH2 (Khitan)], 1 LH2. The Khitan LH2 can be exchanged for a Cv3 Jurchen.

  4. Also see: Jurchen-Jin Dynasty
  5. Georgian (1008-1683): (until 1245) 3 Kn3* or (after 1245) Cv3*, 3 LH2, [(until 1089) 1 Kn3*, 2 Sp4, 2 Bw3 or Ps2, 1 Ps2] or [(after 1089)1 Cv3 (Cuman), 2 LH2 (Cuman), 2 Sp4 or Bw3 or Ps2, 1 Ps2]. After 1089 the LH will be Cuman.

  6. Anglo-Saxon (1014-1075): 1 Bd4* or [(after 1042) Bd3* or Kn3*], 1 Bd4 or (after 1042) Bd3, 8 Sp4, 1 Sp4 or Hd(sp8) or (after 1042) Cv3, 1 Ps2.

  7. Communal Italian (1029-1320): 3 Kn3*, 2 Sp4, 2 Sp4 or (after 1200) Ax4, 1 Bw4 or (until 1200) Ps2 (levy crossbowmen), 1 Ps2 (Archers), 2 Hd(ax6) (peasants), 1 Bw4 (mercenarycrossbowmen).

  8. Also see: Papal States (1049-1320)
  9. Early Seljuk Turks (1037-1092): 2 Cv3*, 1 LH2 or (after 1070) Cv3, 1 LH2 or [Kn4 or Cv3 (Askaris)], 5 LH2, 3 LH2 or [2 Ax3 or Ps2 (Spearmen), 1 Ax4 (Dailami) or Ps2 (Archers)].

  10. Almoravian Spain and North Africa (1039-1145): 1 Cv3* or LH2*, 2 LH2, 4 Sp4, 4 Ps2, 1 Cm3 (Tuareg) or (after 1086) Kn3 (Christian knights).

  11. Konstantinian Byzantine (1042-1070): 3 Cv3*, 1 Kn3 (Norman), 2 LH2, 2 Ps2, [1 Cv3, 1 Cv3 or Kn4 (Kataphraktoi), 2 Sp4 (Varangian)] or [3 Bw4 (Spearmen and archers), 1 LH2 (Pechneg or Cuman) or Bw4].

  12. Burma (1043-1526): 1 El*, 1 Cv3, 5 Ax3, 1 Ax3 or (after 1173) Bd3 (Guards), 4 Bw3 (archers and crossbowmen).

  13. Papal States (1049-1320): 3 Kn3*, 2 Sp4, 2 Sp4 or (after 1200) Ax4, 1 Bw4 or Ps2 (levy crossbowmen), 1 Ps2 (archers), 2 Hd(ax6) (peasants), 1 Bw4 (mercenarycrossbowmen) or Kn3 [before 1072 can dismount as Bd4 (Swabian)] (mercenary knights).

  14. Also see: Communal Italian(1029-1320)
  15. Scotland, Isles and Highlands (1050-1493): 7 Bd4*, 1 Bd4 or Ax3 (Irish Mercenaries), 2 Bd4 or Wb3 (Galwegian), 2 Bd4 or [1 Bw3,1 Bw3 or Ps2 or Hd(ax6) (Highlander)]. All Bd4 must be "Islemen", i.e. inhabitants of the Scottish Isles.

  16. Early Russian (1054-1246): 4 Cv3*, 1 Cv3 (Polish mercenaries) or Kn3 (German mercenaries), 3 LH2, 2 Sp4, 1 Ps2, 1 Ax3 (woodsmen) or Hd(sp8).

  17. Cuman (1054-1394): 1 Cv3*, 9 LH2, 1 LH2 or Hd(ax6), 1 LH2 or (1122-1269) [Ax3 or Ps2 (Vlach)].

  18. Komnenian Byzantine (1071-1149): 2 Cv3* (Kavallarioi), 1 LH2 or Cv3 (Tourkopouli), 3 LH2 (Skythikon), 1 LH2 (Skythikon) or Kn3 (Latinikon), 1 Bd4 (Varangian), 1 Ps2 or Bw4 or Ax3 (Manichaeans), 2 Ps2 or Sp4, 1 Ps2.

  19. Cilician Armenian (1072-1375): 3 Kn3*, 1 LH2 (Bedouin), 6 Sp4 or Ax3, 2 Bw3 or Ps2.

  20. Anglo-Norman (1072-1181): 3 Kn3*, 4 Sp4, 2 Sp4 or [(only in Marcher Armies) 1 Cv3, 1 Ax3], 1 Ps2 or Bw3, 2 Ps2.

  21. Early Feudal French (1072-1149): 4 Kn3*, 2 Sp4, 2 Sp4 or [1 Bd4, 1 Hd(ax6) (peasants)], 3 Ps2, 1 Hd(ax6) (Ribauds).

  22. Early Sicilian (1072-1194): 3 Kn3*, 2 Sp4 (levy infantry), 1 Bw4 or Ps2 (levy crossbowmen), 2 Ax3 (Greeks), 2 Ps2 (Saracen), 1 Ps2 or LH2 (Berber), 1 Ps2 or Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen).

  23. Seljuk Sultanates (1092-1276):

    Sultanate of Merv (1092-1157): 3 Cv3*, 6 LH2, 3 LH2 or [2 Ax3 or Ps2 (Spearmen), 1 Ax4 (Dailami) or Ps2 (archers)].

    Sultanate of Hamadan (1092-1194): 3 Cv3*, 1 LH2 or (before 1128) [Kn4 or Cv3 (Askaris)], 1 LH2 or (before 1128) Cv3 (Syrian), 4 LH2, 3 LH2 or [2 Ax3 or Ps2 (Spearmen), 1 Ps2 (archers) or (before 1128) Ax4 (Dailami)].

    Sultanate of Rum (1092-1276): 3 Cv3*, 5 LH2, 1 LH2 or (1220-1243) Kn3 (Frankish and Armenian), 3 LH2 or [2 Ax3 or Ps2 or (1220-1243) Sp4 (Spearmen), 1 Ps2].

  24. Syrian City-States (1092-1286):

    Turkish states: 4 Cv3*, 3 LH2, [2 Cv3, 3 LH2] or [2 Hd(sp8), 1 Hd(sp8) or Wb3 (Gazi), 1 Hd(sp8) or Ax3 (Kurds), 1 Ps2].

    Mossul (until 1128): use the list for Seljuk Sultanates (Hamadan).

    Arab states: 4 Cv3*, 2 LH2, 2 Hd(sp8), 1 Hd(sp8) or Wb3 (Gazi), 1 Hd(sp8) or Ax3 (Kurd), 2 Ps2.

  25. Later Abbasid (1092-1259): 4 Cv3*, 1 LH2 (Bedouin), 1 LH2 (Turkomen) or Wb3 (Gazi), 2 Wb3 (Gazi), 2 Hd(sp8), 1 Hd(sp8) or Ax3 (Kurds i.e.) or Ps2, 1 Ps2.

  26. Early Crusader (1096-1128): 1 Kn3*, 2 Kn3 or (until 1100) Bd4, 4 Sp4, 2 Ps2, (until 1100) 2 Hd(ax6) (Pilgrims) or [(after 1100) 1 Bw3 (Maronite), 1 Ps2 or Hd(ax6)].

  27. Welsh (1100-1420): 1 Cv3* or (from 1150) Kn3*, 5 Ax3, 1 Ax3 or (before 1150) Bd3 (Irish), 4 Bw3 or Ps2, 1 Ps2.

  28. Ghurid (1100-1215): 1 Cv3*, 3 LH2 (Turks), 1 Ax3, 4 Pk4 or Ax3, 2 Bw3 or Ps2, 1 Bw3 or Ps2 or Cv3.

  29. Eastern Forest North American (1100-1620): 8 Wb3*, 2 Wb3 or Ps2, 2 Ps2.

  30. Mound Builders (Mississippi Culture) American (1100-1701): 1 Bw4*, 1 Bd4, 8 Bw3 or Ps2, 2 Hd (ax6).

  31. Northwest Coastal American (1100-1770): 11 Bw3*, 1 Ps2.

  32. Melanesian (1100-1814): 1 Bd3*, 10 Ax3, 1 Ps2 (archers).

  33. Polynesian (1100-1814): 1 Bd3*, 10 Wb3, 1 Ps2 (Slingers).

  34. Early Holy Roman Empire (1100-1319):

    Imperial Armies: 3 Kn3*, 2 Sp4, 2 Sp4 or (before 1297) 2 Pk4 (Flemish), 1 Bd4, 2 Bw4 or Ps2 (Mercenary crossbowmen or archers), 1Ps2 (archers), 1 Bw4 (levy crossbowmen) or Kn3.

    Feudal or Principality Armies: 4 Kn3*, 2 Kn3 or Sp4, 2 Sp4, 1 Bd4, 2 Bw4 or Ps2 (Mercenary Crossbowmen or archers), 1 Hd(ax6) or Bd3 (peasants with spiked clubs) or (from 1150) LH2 (Ungarn). In both armies Kn3 can dismount as Bd4 evenly exchanged.

  35. Holy Roman Empire, Free Canton Armies(1100-1494): 5 Ax3*, 1 Ps2, 2 Ax3 or Kn3, 2 Ax3 or Sp4, 1 Ax3 or Bd4, 1 Ps2 or Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen).

  36. Jurchen-Jin Dynasty (1115-1234): 2 Cv3*, 1 Cv3 or LH2, 3 Bd4, 3 Bw4 (Crossbowmen), (before 1200) 3 Cv3 or [(from 1200) 1 Bd3, 2 Hd(sp8)].

  37. Qara-Khitan (1124-1211): 2 Kn3*, 2 Cv3, 2 LH2 or [1 Kn3, 1 Cv3], 3 LH2 or [2 Hd(sp8), 1 Ps2], 3 LH2.

  38. Scots Common Army (1124-1512): 1 Kn3* (or dismounts as Sp4* or Pk4*), 1 Pk4 or Bd4 ("Islemen"), 2 Pk4 or [1 Bw3, 1 Hd(ax6) (Highlander)], 2 Pk4 or (before 1250) 2 Wb3 (Galwegian), 5 Pk4, 1 Ps2 or Bw3.

  39. Later Crusader (1128-1303): 4 Kn3*, 1 Kn3 or Sp4 or (after 1150) Cv3, 2 Kn3 or [1 Sp4 or (after 1190) Bw4, 1 Bw4], 2 Sp4or (after 1190) 2 Bw4, 2 Bw4, 1 Bw3. After 1190 must be either all or none Sp exchanged for Bw.

  40. Samogitian (1132-1411): 1 Cv3* or LH2*, 2 LH2 or (after 1386) Cv3, 6 LH2, 2 LH2 or Ax3, 1 LH2 or Ps2.

  41. Lithuanian (1132-1435): 1 Cv3* or LH2*, 3 LH2, 2 LH2 or Ax3, 1 LH2 or Ps2, 1 LH2 or (1397-1399) Kn3 (Polish or Teutonic Knights), 2 LH2 or [(only 1435) 1 Wwg, 1 Bd4 (Hussite)].

  42. Spanish Christian States (1145-1350): 3 Kn3*, 1 Cv3 or Ax3, 2 LH2, 2 Sp4, 2 Sp4 or Ps2, 2 Ps2.

  43. Almohades Spain and North Africa (1145-1269): 5 LH2*, 2 Sp4, 3 Ps2, 1 Sp4 (Guard) or Kn3 (Christian mercenaries), 1 Cv3.

  44. Late Komnenan Byzantine (1150-1204): 1 Kn3* (Kavallarioi), 1 Kn3 (Kavallarioi) or Bd4 (Varangian), 2 Kn3 (Latinikon), 1 LH2 or Cv3 (Turkopol), 3 LH2 (Skythikon), [1 LH2 (Vardarioten), 1 Ps2] or 2 Sp4, 1 Ps2 or Bw4, 1 Ps2.

  45. Late Feudal French (1150-1330): 3 Kn3*, 1 Kn3 or Cv3 (Sergeants), 2 Ax3, 2 Ax3 or Sp4 or Pk4 (Flemish), 1 Bw3 (Crossbowmen), 1 Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen) or Ps2, 1 Ps2, 1 Hd(ax6) (Ribauds or peasants).

  46. Toltec-Chichimec States (1168-1518): 2 Bd3*, 8 Bw4, 1 Ps2, 1 Wb3 (Otomi).

  47. Ayyubid Egyptian (1171-1250): 4 Cv3*, 1 LH2, [1 Cv3, 2 Cv3 or Ax3, 1 Cv3 or Hd(ax6) or Hd(sp8) or Wb3, 1 Cv3 or Hd(sp8), 1 Cv3 or Ps2, 1 LH2 or Ps2] or [(before 1244) 2 LH2, 2 Cv3 or Bw4, 1 Cv3 or Hd(sp8) or Wb3, 1 LH2 or Ps2, 1 LH2 or Ax3].

  48. Anglo-Irish (1172-1299): 1 Kn3* (Norman), 3 Bw3 (Welsh), 1 Bd4 ("Ostmen"), 4 Ax3 (Irish), 3 Ps2 (Irish).

  49. Serbian Empire (1180-1340): 4 Kn3*, 2 LH2, 2 Sp4 or Hd(ax6) or (after 1300) Ax3, 4 Ps2 or Bw3.

  50. Feudal English (1181-1322): 4 Kn3*, 2 Hd(sp8) or Sp4 or Ax3, 2 Hd(sp8) or Bw3, 3 Bw3, 1 Bw3 or Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen).

  51. Khwarizian (1186-1246): 4 Cv3*, 2 Cv3 or LH2, 4 LH2, 1 Cv3 or Bw3 or Ps2, 1 LH2 or Hd(sp8).

  52. Later Bulgarian (1186-1395): 3 Kn3*, 5 LH2, [1 Kn3 or Cv3, 3 LH2] or [2 Sp4, 2 Ps2].

  53. Lusignan Cypriot (1192-1473): 2 Kn3*, 1 Cv3 or (1373-1374 or after 1415) LH2, 2 Sp4, 4 Bw3 (crossbowmen), 2 Ps2 (archers), 1 Ps2 or (until 1375) Bw3 (Armenian).

  54. Also see: Cyprus, Genoan Army(1373-1464)
  55. Middle Sicilian(1195-1266): 4 Kn3*, 1 LH2, 1 LH2 or Ax3, 2 Sp4 (levy infantry) or Hd(ax6) (militia), 4 Ps2 or Bw4.

  56. Estonian(1200-1227): 10 Wb3*, 1 Ps2, 1 Wb3 or (after 1222) Bw3.

  57. Prussian(1200-1283): 2 Cv3* (or dismount as Wb3*), 4 Wb3, 4 Wb3 or Ax3, 2 Ps2.

  58. Tupi and Brazilian Rain Forest (1200-1580): 1 Wb3*, 5 Wb3 or Bw3, 6 Bw3.

  59. Teutonic Knights(1201-1522): 3 Kn3* (or dismount as Bd4), 1 Cv3, 3 LH2, [2 Kn3 (or dismount as Bd4), 1 Cv3, 2 LH2] or [1 (until 1414) Kn3 or (after 1414) Ps2 (Handgunners), 2 Sp4, 2 Bw4].

  60. Nikaian Byzantine (1204-1261): 3 Cv3* (Stratioten), 1 LH2 or Cv3 (Turkopol), 2 Kn3 (Latinikon), 2 LH2 (Cuman), 2 Sp4 or [1 Ps2 or Bw4, 1 Ps2 (archers)], 2 Ps2 (archers).

  61. Romanian Frank (1204-1311): 4 Kn3*, 1 Kn3 or Cv3 (Greek) or (after 1264) LH2 (Bulgarian or Turk), 2 Sp4, 1 Bw3 (crossbowmen), 3 Ps2 (Frank or Greek archers), 1 Ax3 or Ps2 (Slavs).

  62. Venetian Armies in Greek Territories (1204-1439(?): 2 Kn3*, 4 Bw4 (Crossbowmen), 4 Ax4 ("Bellatores"), 2 Ps2 (Greek archers or Cretan or Catalan crossbowmen) .

  63. Epirot Byzantine (1204-1318): 2 Cv3* or [1 Kn3*, 1 LH2] (Stratioten), 1 Kn3 (mercenary Knights), 1 LH2 (Albanian), 2 Ax3 or Sp4, 2 Ps2 (archers), [2 Ax3, 1 Ps2 or Bw4 (Greek or mercenary), 1 Ps2 or LH2 (Albanian)] or [3 LH2, 1Ax3 or Ps2 (Vlach)].

  64. Trapezuntine Byzantine (1204-1461): 2 Cv3* or (after 1360) LH2*, 4 LH2, 2 Bw4 or Ps2, [1 Ax3, 1 Ax3 or Ps2 (Laz)]or (after 1360) 2 LH2, [2 Bw4 or Ps2] or 2 Sp4.

  65. Mongol Conquest (1206-1266): 2 Cv3*, 9 LH2, 1 LH2 or Hd(ax6).

  66. Later Muslim Indian (1206-1526): 3 Cv3*, 1 El, 1 LH2 or (after 1340) Art, 3 Bw3, 1 Bw3 or (1315-1388) Kn3 (Rathor), 1Bd3, 1 Ps2, 1 Hd(ax6).

  67. Indonesian and Malay (1222-1511): 1 El* or Wb3*, 8 Wb3, 1 LH2 or Wb3 or Ps2, 2 Ps2 or Bw3.

  68. Granadine (1232-1492): 1 (until 1340) Kn3* or (after 1340) Cv3*, 2 LH2, 2 Sp4, 1 Bw4 (mercenary), 1LH2 or Ps2 or Bw3, 4 Ps2 or Bw3 (peasants), 1 Ps2.

  69. Navarrese (1234-1378): 4 Kn3*, 4 Ax3, 2 Ps2, 1 Bw3 (Gascon), 1 Bw4 (English).

  70. Siamese (1238-1518): 1 El*, 1 Cv3, 8 Wb3 or 8 Ax3, 2 Ps2. One Wb3 or Ax3 Element may be exchanged for one Ax4-Element (Guards).

  71. Early Swiss (1240-1400): 10 Bd3*, 2 Ps2.

  72. Islamic Persian(1245-1393): 6 Cv3*, 1 LH2 (Turkomen), 2 Bw3, 1 Hd(ax6), [(Karts of Herat) 1 Bw3, 1 Ax3] or 2 Cv3 (otherwise).

  73. Middle Hungarian (1245-1441): 2 Kn3*, 1 LH2 or (from 1395) Kn3 (German mercenaries), 5 LH2, 2 Sp4, 2 Ps2.

  74. Post Mongol Russia (1246-1533): 5 Cv3*, (until 1380) 2 Cv3 or (after 1380) 2 LH2, 2 Cv3 or Sp4, 2 Cv3 or Bw3, 1 Cv3 or (after 1380) Ps2.

  75. Mamluk Egyptian (1250-1517): 4 Cv3*, 1 Cv3 or Hd(ax6), 1 Cv3 or LH2, 1 Cv3 or (after 1315) Bw3, 1 Cv3 or Bw3 or Bw4, 1LH2 or Ax3, 1 LH2 or Ps2, 2 LH2.

  76. Ilkhanid (1251-1355): 2 Cv3*, 10 LH2.

  77. Golden Hordeand Successors (1251-1556): 2 Cv3*, 8 LH2, 2 Bw3 or [1 Cv3, 1 LH2]

  78. Yuan Dynasty (1260-1368): 2 Cv3*, 1 Cv3 or LH2, 2 LH2, 2 Bd3, 2 Bw4, 1 Ps2, [(until 1275) 2 Ax3 or Hd(ax6)] or [(after 1275) 1 Bw3, 1 Ax3 (southern barbarian) or Art].

  79. Anatolian Turkomen (1260-1515): 2 Cv3*, 1 Cv3 or Hd(sp8), 6 LH2, 2 LH2 or Bw3.

  80. Palaiologian Byzantine (1261-1384): 2 Cv3*, 1 Kn3, 1 LH2, 2 Sp4, 2 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw4, [1 Hd(ax6), 1 Ps2] or (until 1291) 2 LH2 (Cuman), 1 Ax4 or [(until 1305) LH2 or Cv3 (Turkopol)].

  81. Morean Byzantine (1262-1460): 2 Cv3*, 2 Ax3 or Ps2 (Slavs), 2 Ps2, [(1347-1458) 2 LH2, 1 LH2 or Ax3, 1 LH2 orPs2 (Albanian), 2 Sp4 or Bw4] or [2 Sp4, 2 Bw4, 2 Ps2].

  82. Later Nomadic Mongol (1266-1508): 1 Cv3*, 5 Cv3 or LH2, 6 LH2.

  83. Later Sicilian (1267-1442): 3 Kn3*, 2 Hd(ax6), [(until 1281) 2 Kn3, 2 Sp4 (levy infantry), 2 Bw4 (levy and mercenary crossbowmen), 1 Hd(ax6)] or[(1282-1301) 1 LH2 (Aragonese horse), 4 Ax3 (Almughavars), 2 Ps2 (Aragonese crossbowmen)] or [(after 1301) 1 Kn3, 2 Sp4 (levy infantry), 2 Bw4 (levy and mercenary crossbowmen), 2 Ps2 (aragonese crossbowmen)].

  84. Berbers (1269-1529): 5 LH2*, 1 Kn3 (Christian mercenaries) or LH2, 2 Sp4, 2 Bw3 or Ps2, 2 Ps2.

  85. Mixtec and Zapotec (1280-1521): 1 Ax3* or (only Mixtec) Ax4*, 8 Ax3, 3 Ps2.

  86. Medieval Scandinavian (1280-1389): 2 Kn3*, 1 Cv3, 2 Bd4 or Bw3 or Ps2, 6 Bd4.

  87. Early Ottoman (1281-1362): 2 Cv3*, 8 LH2, 1 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Ax3 or Hd(ax6).

  88. Order of St. John (1291-1522): 3 Kn3* (or dismount as Bd4*), 2 Sp4 or (after 1450) [1 Bd4, 1 Art], 2 Bw3, 2 Bw4, 3 Ps2.

  89. Low Countries (1297-1329): 1 Kn3* (or dismount asPk4*), 1 Kn3 or Bd3, 8 Pk4, 1 Bw4 (crossbowmen), 1 Ps2.

  90. Medieval Irish (1300-1487): 1 LH2*, 2 Bd4 (Galloglaich), 4 Ax3, 4 Ps2, 1 Cv3 or Hd(ax6).

  91. Early English Armies in Ireland (1300-1394): 1 Kn3*, 1 Cv3, 1 LH2, 2 Bw4, 2 Bd4 (Galloglaich), 3 Ax3, 2 Ps2.

  92. Post Mongol Samurai Japan (1300-1542): 1 Cv3*, 3 Bd4*, 2 Ax3, 1 Bw3, [1 Cv3, 1 Bd4, 2 Ax3, 1 Bd4 or Bd3] or(after 1465) 5 Hd(ax6) (Ikko Ikki) or [(from 1465) 1 Bd3, 1 Ax3, 3 Hd(ax6) (levies)]. After 1465 can exchange one Ax3 for one Ax4.

  93. Catalan Company (1302-1388): [(before 1305) 1 Kn3*, 1 Ps2] or (from 1305) 2 LH2 (Turkish, Turkopol or (from 1380) Albanian), 1 LH2 (Aragonese), 8 Ax3*, 1 Ps2.

  94. Epirot Despotate (1318-1340): 2 Kn3* (mostly Italian Knights), 2 Cv3 or [1 Kn3, 1 LH2] (Stratioten), 2 LH2 (Albanian), 2 Ax3 or Sp4, 2 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw4 (Greek or mercenary), 1 Ax3.

  95. Italian States (1320-1416): 5 Kn3*, 1 LH2, 2 Bw4 or Ps2 (levy crossbowmen), 1 Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen), 2 Sp4 (levy spearmen), 1 Art.

  96. Also see: Florence and Papal State
    Also see: Pisa and Padua
    Also see: Naples
  97. Florence and Papal State (1320-1416): 4 Kn3*, 2 LH2, 1 Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen), 1 Art, [2 Bw4 or Ps2 (levy crossbowmen),2 Sp4 (levy spearmen)] or [(before 1400) 2 Kn3 (or dismount asSp4), 2 Bw4 (mercenary companies)].

  98. Also see:Italian States (1320-1416)
    Also see: Pisa and Padua
    Also see: Naples
  99. Pisa and Padua (1320-1416): 4 Kn3*, 1 LH2, 2 Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen), 1 Art, [2 Bw4 or Ps2 (levy crossbowmen), 2 Sp4 (levy spearmen)] or [(before 1400) 2 Kn3 (or dismount asSp4), 2 Bw4 (mercenary company)].

  100. Also see: Italian States (1320-1416)
    Also see: Florence and Papal State
    Also see: Naples
  101. Naples (1320-1420): 5 Kn3*, 2 LH2, 2 Sp4 (levy spearmen or guards), 2 Bw4 or Ps2 (levy crossbowmen), 1 Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen).

  102. Also see:Italian States (1320-1416)
    Also see: Florence and Papal State
    Also see: Pisa and Padua
  103. Middle Holy Roman Empire (1320-1494): 2 Kn3*, 1 Kn3 or Cv3 (lancers), 1 Cv3 (mounted crossbowmen or hand gunners), (until1450) 2 Sp4 or (after 1450) 2 Pk4 (Pk4* after 1478), [(before 1478) 1 Bd4, 1 Kn3 or (1420-1457) LH2] or (until 1450) 2 Sp4 or (after1450) 2 Pk4, 2 Bw4 (crossbowmen), 1 Ps2 (Hand gunners), 1 Ps2 or Wwg or Art.

  104. Early Hundred Years War English (1322-1399): 3 Kn3* (or dismount asBd4*), (before 1350) 1 Cv3 (Hobilars) or (from 1350) Kn3 (Gascon, Brabanter, False-French), 4 Bw4, 2 Bw4 or (before 1350) Bw3, 1 Ax3 (before 1350 Welsh,Gascon brigans), 1 Ps2 (Breton, Gascon, Irish).

  105. Aztec (1325-1521): 3 Bd3*, 1 Wb3 (Otontin or Cuachic), 6 Ax4, 2 Ps2. The classifying of Knighthoods and Priestly warriors as Bd3 and of the normal warriors as Ax4 per J. Esler, New World Armies in DBM, Slingshot 187 (September 1996) 12f. Also Otontin?, Slingshot 195 (January 1998)

  106. Medieval French (1330-1445): 3 Kn3*, 1 Kn3 or (1350-1399) Sp4 or (1400-1445) Cv3, 1 Bw3, 1 Bw3 or Ps2 (crossbowmen), 1 Ax3, 1 Bw3 or (1350-1399) Sp4 or (from 1400) Bd4, [1 Bw4 (Genoan crossbowmen), 1 Ps2, 1 Ax3] or 3 Hd(ax6) (peasants). All Kn3 units may dismount as Bd4.

  107. Middle Low Countries (1330-1409): 2 Kn3* (one element may dismount as Pk4*), 6 Pk4, 1 Bw4, 1 Bd3, 1 Art, 1Ps2 orBw4 (archers) or Hd(ax6).

  108. Wallachian (1330-1476): 1 Cv3*, 3 LH2, 1 Bd4 or (from 1456) Kn3 (:f200, Times New Roman,0,0,0"Crusaders"), 2 Bw3, 2 Hd(ax6) or Ax3, 2 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or (from 1456) Art.

  109. Late Polish (1335-1510): 3 Kn3*, 3 Cv3, 3 LH2, 1 Bd3 or (from 1400) Wwg, 2 Bw4 (crossbowmen).

  110. Jalayirid (1336-1432): 4 Cv3*, 7 LH2, 1 LH2 or Hd(ax6).

  111. Late Spanish Christian States (1340-1485):

    Aragon: 2 Kn3*, 1 LH2, 1 LH2 or Ax3, 1 Ax3, 2 Sp4, 3 Bw3 or Ps2 (archers and crossbowmen), 1 Ps2.

    Castilian: 2 Kn3*, 2 LH2, 2 Sp4, 1 Ax3, 2 Bw3 or Ps2 (archers and crossbowmen), 1 Bw4 or Ps2 or Ax3 (Hermandad or Mudejar), 2 Ps2.

    Portugal: 2 Kn3*, 1 LH2, 2 Sp4, 3 Bw3 or Ps2 (archers and crossbowmen), 2 Ax3, 1 Ax3 or Hd(ax6), 1 Ps2. All Portuguese Kn3 can dismount as Bd4.

  112. Late Serbian (1340-1459): 4 Kn3*, 2 LH2, 2 Sp4 or [1 Bd4, 1 Ax3], 4 Bw3.

  113. Albanian (1345-1430 and 1443-1479): 6 LH2*, 4 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw3 (crossbowmen), 1 Ps2 or Ax3.

  114. Chanca (1350-1440): 6 Ax3*, 4 Wb3, 2 Ps2.

  115. Chimu (1350-1464): 10 Wb3*, 2 Ps2.

  116. Other Amazonian tribes (1350-1662): 11 Bw3*, 1 Ps2.

  117. Ming Dynasty (1356-1540): 3 Cv3*, 1 LH2, 1 LH2 or (after 1449) [Ax3 or Ps2 (southern barbarian)], 2 Bd4 or (after 1449) Hd(sp8), 2 Bw4 (archers and crossbowmen), 1 Bw4 (hand gunners), 1 Bd3 or Ps2 or (after 1449) Hd(sp8), 1 Art or (after 1449) Wwg.

  118. Free Company and other Mercenary bands (1357-1410 and 1444): 6 Kn3*, 3 Bw4, 1 Bw4 (crossbowmen), 1 Ps2, (until 1410) 1 Kn3 or (1444) Art. Up to 4 Kn3 can be dismounted as Bd4.

  119. Moldavian (1359-1504): 1 (before 1400) Cv3* or (from 1400) Kn3*, 3 LH2, 1 Bd4, 2 Bw3, 2 Hd(ax6) or Ax3, 2 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or (from 1400) Art.

  120. Timurid (1360-1506): 6 Cv3*, 1 LH2, 1 LH2 or (1360-1405) Hd(ax6) or (1405-1447) El, 2 Cv3 or Bw4, 1 Cv3 or Bw3 or Ps2, 1Cv3 or Ax3.

  121. Early Burgundian (1363-1471): 3 Kn3*, 1 Kn3 or Cv3, 1 Bw3 (crossbowmen) or Hd(ax6) (levy), 2 Pk4 (Flemish), 2 Bw4 (Flemish crossbowmen), 3 Bw4.

  122. Later Ottoman (1363-1512): 3 Cv3*, 5 LH2, 2 Bw4, 1 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Ax3 or Hd(ax6) or Wb3 or Bd4 or Art or (after 1470) Wwg.

  123. Cyprus, Genoan Army (1373-1464): 5 Kn3*, 2 Kn3 or (only 1373) 2 LH2 or [(after 1400) 1 Bd4 or Bd3, 1 Ps2], 2LH2, 2 Bw4 (crossbowmen), 1 Art.

  124. Black Sheep (1378-1469) and White Sheep Turkomen (1387-1504): 4 Cv3*, 2 Cv3 or LH2, 2 LH2, 2 Bw3 or Ps2, 1 Cv3 or LH2 or Bw3 or Ps2 (from 1472 hand gunners), 1 Hd(ax6).

  125. Navarrese Company in Greece (1379-1430): 3 Kn3*, 1 LH2 (Albanian or Turkish), 4 Ax3, 2 Ps2, 1 Bw3 (Gascon), 1 Bw4 (Italian).

  126. Later Scandinavian (1390-1523): 3 Kn3*, 1 Cv3, 2 Bd3, 1 Bd3 or Bw4, 1 Ps2, {[1 Kn3, 1 Cv3] or (after 1487) 2 Pk4, 1 Bd3, 1 Bd3 or Bw4 or Art} or [3 Sp4, 1 Sp4 or Ps2].

    Swedish Rebellion: 2 Kn3*, 1 Kn3 or Ps2, 1 Cv3, 4 Bd4, 4 Bw3.

  127. Yi Dynasty Korea (1392-1598): 3 Cv3*, 1 LH2, 2 Bw4, 2 Bw4 or [1 Art, 1 Ps2], 2 Pk4, 2 Pk4 or Hd(sp8).

  128. Late English Army in Ireland (1395-1489): 1 Cv3*, 1 LH2, 1 Bw4, 2 Bd4 (Billmen), 2 Bd4 (Galloglaich), 3 Ax3, 2 Ps2.

  129. Late Hundred Years War English (1400-1455): 2 Kn3* (or dismount asBd4*), 6 Bw4, 2 Bd4, 1 Ax3 (Gascon), 1 Ps2 (Breton, Gascon, Irish).

  130. Late Swiss (1400-1522): 6 Pk4*, 2 Pk4 or (before 1490) Bd3, 2 Pk4 or [(1476/77) 1 Kn3, 1 Ps2], 2 Ps2.

  131. Late Low Countries (1410-1478): 1 Kn3* (or dismount asPk4*), 8 Pk4, 1 Bw4, 1 Ps2, 1 Kn3 or Bd4 or Art.

  132. Italian States (1417-1495): 4 Kn3*, 1 LH2, 2 Bw4 or Ps2 (levy crossbowmen), 1 Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen), 1 Bd3 (swordsmen), 1 Ps2, [1 Kn3, 1 Art] or (after 1440) 2 Pk4.

  133. Also see: Florence
    Also see: Milan
    Also see: Papal State
    Also see: Naples
    Also see: Venetian Italian Army
  134. Florence (1417-1506): 4 Kn3*, 1 LH2, 2 Bw4 or Ps2 (levy crossbowmen), 1 Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen), 2 Sp4 or (after 1440) Pk4 (levy spearmen), 1 Ps2, 1 Bd3 (swordsmen) or Art.

  135. Also see: Italian States (1417-1495)
    Also see: Papal State
    Also see: Milan
    Also see: Naples
    Also see: Venetian Italian Army
  136. Papal State (1417-1503): 3 Kn3*, 1 LH2, 2 Bw4 or Ps2 (levy crossbowmen), 1 Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen), 2 Sp4 or (after 1440) Pk4 (levy spearmen), 1 Ps2, 1 Bd3 (swordsmen), 1 Ps2, 1 Art, [1 Kn3, 1 LH2 or Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen) or Ps2] or(from 1496) 2 Pk4.

  137. Also see: Italian States(1417-1495)
    Also see: Florence
    Also see: Milan
    Also see: Naples
    Also see: Venetian Italian Army
  138. Milan (1417-1500): 4 Kn3* (or dismount asBd4), 2 LH2, [4 Kn3 (or dismount as Bd4), 2 LH2] or [2 Bw4 or Ps2 (levy crossbowmen), 1 Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen), 1 Bd3 (swordsmen) or Art, 2 Ps2].

  139. Also see: Italian States(1417-1495)
    Also see: Florence
    Also see: Papal State
    Also see: Naples
    Also see: Venetian Italian Army
  140. Venetian Italian Army (1417-1503):2 Kn3*, 2 LH2, 2 Bw4 (crossbowmen), 1 Bd3 (:f200, Times New Roman,0,0,0swordsmen), 3 Ps2 (archers or hand gunners), 1 LH2 or Art.

  141. Also see: Italian States(1417-1495)
    Also see: Florence
    Also see: Papal State
    Also see: Milan
    Also see: Naples
    Also see: Venetian Army outside of Italy (1440-1495)
    Also see: Late Cyprus(1474-1489)
  142. Hussite (1419-1434 and 1464-1471): 1 Kn3*, 1 LH2, 4 Wwg, 4 Bd4, [1 Wwg, 1 Bd4] or [(from 1421) 1 Kn3, 1 Art].

  143. Naples (1421-1502): 2 Kn3*, 2 LH2, 1 Bd3 (swordsmen), 2 Ax3 (Aragonese), 2 Ps2 (crossbowmen), 2 Ps2 (archers and hand gunners), 1 Art or Kn3.

  144. Also see: Italian States(1417-1495)
    Also see: Florence
    Also see: Papal State
    Also see: Milan
    Also see: Venetian Italian Army
  145. Incas (1438-1532): 8 Ax4*, 2 Hd(ax6), 2 Ps2.

  146. Venetian Army outside of Italy(1440-1495): 4 Kn3* (or dismount as Bd4), 3 LH2, 1 Bd3 (swordsmen), 2 Bw4 (colonist or mercenary crossbowmen), 2 Ps2 (archers and hand gunners).

  147. Also see: Venetian Italian Army
    Also see: Late Cyprus(1474-1489)
  148. Late Hungarian (1442-1526): 2 Kn3*, 1 LH2 or (until 1490) Kn3 (German mercenary), 4 LH2, 1 Sp4 or Wwg, 1 Sp4 or Bd4, 3 Ps2.

  149. French Ordonnance (1445-1503): 3 Kn3*, 1 Bw4 or (after 1465) Cv3, 1 Bd4, 1 Bw3 (crossbowmen), 2 Bw4, 2 Bw4 or (after 1465) Pk4 (Swiss), 1 Ps2, 1 Art.

  150. War of the Roses English (1455-1487):

    Lancaster: 2 Kn3*, 2 Bd4, 4 Bw4, [1 Kn3 or Cv3, 1 Bd3, 2 Bw4] or 4 Bw4 (conscripts) or [1 Kn3 or Cv3 or LH2, 2 Sp4, 1 Bw3 or Bd4 (Border troops)] or [1 Ax3, 2 Bw3 (Welsh), 1 Kn3 or Cv3] or [1 Ax3, 2 Ps2 (Irish), 1 Kn3 or Cv3].

    York: 1 Kn3*, 1 Kn3 or Cv3, 2 Bd4, 5 Bw4, [1 Kn3, 1 Bd4, 2 Bw4] or 3 Bw4 (conscripts) or [1 Ax3 (Welsh), 1 Kn3, 1 Bd4] or [2 Pk4, 1 Ps2 (Burgundian troops)].

    Pretenders to the House of York: 1 Kn3*, 1 Kn3 or Cv3, 2 Bd4, 4 Bw4, [1 Kn3, 1 Bd4, 2 Bw4] or [1 Ax3, 2 Ps2 (Irish), 1 Kn3] or [2 Pk4, 1 Ps2 (Burgundian troops), 1 Bw4].

    Richard III.: 2 Kn3*, 2 Bd4, 4 Bw4, [1 Kn3 or Cv3, 1 Bd4, 2 Bw4] or 4 Bw4 (Levies) or [1 Kn3 or Cv3 or LH2, 2 Sp4, 1 Bw3 or Bd4 (Border troops)].

    Tudor: 2 Kn3*, 2 Bd4, 4 Bw4, [1 Kn3 or Cv3, 1 Bd4, 2 Bw4] or 4 Bw4 (Levies) or [1 Ax3, 2 Bw3 (Welsh), 1 Kn3 or Cv3] or [1 Bd4, 1 Bw4, 1 Bw4 (French crossbowmen), 1 Ps2 (Bretons)].

    In all armies in List 137 the Kn3 can dismount as Bd4.

  151. Burgundian Ordonnance (1471-1477): 4 Kn3*, 3 Bw4, 1 Bw4 (crossbowmen), 2 Pk4, 1 Ps2, 1 Art.

  152. Late Cyprus (1474-1489): 1 Kn3*, 1 Kn3 or LH2, 1 LH2 (Stradioten), 3 Bw3, 2 Sp4, 2 Ps2, 1 Bw4 (mercenary crossbowmen), 1 Bd4 or Ps2 (mercenary infantry).

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Last Updated: July 10, 1999

Questions, comments, suggestions welcome. Send them to Chris Brantley at IamFanaticus@gmail.com.